Data and references

Company data

The company’s own data for energy consumption, fuel, raw material, sub raw materials, transport service and waste production is the basis for the company’s carbon account as well as the product calculations made. The company’s own data are verified by consultants representing ClimateCalc.

Standard data for graphical raw material

The emission factors for graphical raw material are based on the best knowledge available within both published LCA research and various development projects undertaken in the graphical industry. Emission factors for e.g. printing ink, varnish, printing plates, cleaning agents etc. are developed primarily on the basis of clearly defined models for the specific raw material using data from the Ecoinvent database. The Danish Technical University has contributed data as well as  the definition of models related to graphical raw materials, based among others on the project Ecolabelling of Printed Matter – Part II.

Standard data for energy and fuel

Most of the used data for fuel- and energy consumption comes from the Ecoinvent database and from UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The emission factors for electricity consumption and fuel combustion are country specific, while emission factors relating to fuel production and purchase of transport services are the average data for Europe. The University of Aalborg has contributed data for energy and fuel.

Data for paper

The purpose of ClimateCalc is to provide exact information on the carbon impact of the specific graphic product seen in a life circle perspective. As the production of paper represents 50 – 70 % of the total carbon impact of the graphic product, it is important to involve data representing the specific paper qualities in the carbon calculation. The purchaser of printed matter and the graphic company are only able to make a prioritised effort to minimize the carbon impact by using data for the specific paper qualities.

Therefore, ClimateCalc mainly uses data for specific paper qualities based primarily on the CEPI-Ten-Toes method (, and, secondarily, uses the Paper-Profile method ( using emission factors for electricity for the country in which the paper is produced.